Metallic composition and source apportionment of fine and coarse particles using positive matrix factorization in the southern Black Sea atmosphere

TECER L. H., TUNCEL S. G., KARACA F., Alagha O., Suren P., Zararsız A., ...More

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, vol.118, pp.153-169, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 118
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.06.016
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.153-169
  • Keywords: Fine and coarse PM metal composition, Iron steel and coal fired power plant, Source apportionment, PMF, Southern Black Sea atmosphere, SPECIATION TRENDS NETWORK, SOUTHEASTERN UNITED-STATES, PARTICULATE MATTER PM10, CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, TRACE-ELEMENTS, URBAN AEROSOL, PM2.5, TURKEY, SITES
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, coarse- (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction aerosol samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler, and their metallic composition (Mg, Al, Ti, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence. The average crustal enrichment factor (EFc) values of Pb, Cu, SO42-. and Zn are greater than 10 for both coarse- and fine-fraction aerosols, which indicates that anthropogenic sources account for the concentrations of these four elements in both the fractions. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of PM2.5 mass in the Zonguldak atmosphere. A total of six factors were identified, which can be interpreted as either emission sources or physically meaningful factors. The goodness of the six-factor solution for the PMF model was tested by comparing the measured and the modeled PM2.5 masses. An excellent agreement was found between the measured and the modeled fine masses, which indicates that the six-factor-PMF solution adopted in this study accurately accounts for the observed PM2.5 mass in the city of Zonguldak, the city is located at the middle of the Black Sea coasts of Turkey. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.