Object. Epidural fibrosis is the scar tissue formed over the dura mater after a laminectomy. Extensive epidural fibrosis may be an important underlying cause of failed back syndrome. Pimecrolimus, an ascomycin derivative, is one of the new classes of immunomodulating macrolactams and was specifically developed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study examined the preventive effects of the local application of pimecrolimus in minimizing spinal epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model.