In the quest of new materials that can withstand severe irradiation and mechanical extremes for advanced applications (e.g. fission & fusion reactors, space applications, etc.), design, prediction and control of advanced materials beyond current material designs become paramount. Here, through a combined experimental and simulation methodology, we design a nanocrystalline refractory high entropy alloy (RHEA) system. Compositions assessed under extreme environments and in situ electron-microscopy reveal both high thermal stability and radiation resistance. We observe grain refinement under heavy ion irradiation and resistance to dual-beam irradiation and helium implantation in the form of low defect generation and evolution, as well as no detectable grain growth. The experimental and modeling results—showing a good agreement—can be applied to design and rapidly assess other alloys subjected to extreme environmental conditions.