Exploring the factors contributing to empowerment of Turkish migrant women in the UK


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, vol.46, no.3, pp.223-233, 2011 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00207594.2010.532800
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.223-233
  • Keywords: Acculturation, Empowerment, Psychological distress, Perceived discrimination, Social support, Turkish migrant women, SOCIAL SUPPORT, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION, MENTAL-HEALTH, PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS, SELF-ESTEEM, RESILIENCE, EXPERIENCES, ADAPTATION, ACCULTURATION, IMMIGRANTS
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study examined the role of demographic factors (length of stay, education and language level), perceived discrimination, social support, four acculturation attitudes, and psychological distress in predicting empowerment among Turkish migrant women in the UK. The study sample comprised 248 Turkish migrant women (mean age: 34.38; SD: 7.6) living in London. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess empowerment, social support, acculturation attitude and psychological distress. The study hypothesized that perceived discrimination; acculturation attitudes of separation, assimilation and marginalization; and psychological distress would be negative predictors of empowerment and that social support and an integration acculturation attitude would be positive predictors of empowerment. To some extent, the study findings supported this hypothesis. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated psychological distress to be the most significant predictor of empowerment, with other significant predictors including level of education and social support. More specifically, lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of education and social support appeared to predict greater empowerment. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that level of education and social support may function as protective factors and that psychological distress may function as a risk factor for empowerment in the migration context. The paper discusses the findings of this study in relation to the previous literature and notes their implications for future research and practice.