Bed-to-surface heat transfer experiments from a vertically submerged cylindrical surface were conducted in laboratory-scale (D-c = 25 cm) conical spouted and spout-fluid beds at two different conical angles (31 degrees and 66 degrees) in the high particle density range (2500 kg/m(3) <= sigma(p) <= 6000 kg/m(3)). The effects of the bed design parameters (conical angle and inlet diameter of spouting gas entrance) and operating conditions (static bed height, particle size, density, and spouting and fluidization gas flow rates) on the heat transfer characteristics were investigated in detail. The heat transfer coefficients were shown to be dependent on the density and size of the particles. The minimum stable spouting velocities of the denser and larger particles were higher, which led to higher operational spouting velocities and thereby resulted in higher heat transfer coefficients. The positive effect of increasing the particle diameter on heat transfer was more pronounced in the spout and at the spout-annulus interface, whereas this effect was diminished in the annulus region. The heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing spouting gas velocity up to 1.0U(ms)-1.1U(ms), beyond which no significant change was observed regardless of the particle type. The heat transfer coefficient in the annulus decreased with increasing conical angle because of reduced particle circulation. The spout-fluid operation increased the heat transfer coefficient by a maximum of 10% at the expense of a significant increase of the total gas flow rate. This result was attributed to the inability of the fluidizing gas to penetrate the annulus. An empirical correlation for the average heat transfer coefficient in the annulus was also proposed based on the data obtained in this work. (C) 2018 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.