The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess young Turkish pupils' environmental literacy (EL) level by considering six EL components. The sample of the study comprised of 2,412 fifth graders selected from 78 elementary schools (26 private and 52 public) in 26 provinces of Turkey. Data were obtained through the use of an elementary school environmental literacy instrument (ESELI) including five parts and total of 75 items. The results revealed that the composite EL score of the students was found to be 149.66 (SD = 26.19), suggesting a moderate level of EL among 61% percent of the students (n = 1,545). On the other hand, more than a quarter of the participants (27.3%, n = 659) held high level EL, whereas only 22 students (0.9%) showed low level EL. The implications of the results to policy, practice, and further research were discussed at the end of the study.