In this study, biomass samples were obtained from six municipal and nine industrial full-scale anaerobic processes to investigate whether the aceticlastic methanogen population composition is related to acetate utilization capacity and the nature of the wastewater treated, i.e. municipal sludge or industrial wastewater. Batch serum bottle tests were used to determine the specific acetate utilization rate (AUR), and a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol was used to enumerate the acetate-utilizing Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina populations in the biomass samples. Methanosaeta was the dominant aceticlastic methanogen in all samples, except for one industrial wastewater-treating anaerobic process. However, Methanosarcina density in industrial biomass samples was higher than the Methanosarcina density in the municipal samples. The average AUR values of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant biomass samples were 10.49 and 10.65 mg CH3COO-/log(aceticlastic methanogen gene copy).d, respectively. One-way ANOVA test and principle component analysis showed that the acetate utilization capacities and aceticlastic methanogen community composition did not show statistically significant correlation among the municipal digesters and industrial wastewater-treating processes investigated.