AFLP markers were used to assess genetic relationships among Cicer species with distribution in Turkey. Genetic distances were computed among 47 Cicer accessions representing four perennial and six annual species including chickpea, using 306 positions on AFLP gels. AFLP-based grouping of species revealed two clusters, one of which includes three perennial species, Cicer montbretii, Cicer isauricum and Cicer anatolicum, while the other cluster consists of two subclusters, one including one perennial, Cicer incisum, along with three annuals from the second crossability group (Cicer pinnatifidum, Cicer judaicum and Cicer bijugum) and the other one comprising three annuals from the first crossability group (Cicer echinospermum, Cicer reticulatum and Cicer arietinum). Consistent with previous relationship studies in the same accession set using allozyme and RAPD markers, in AFLP-based relationships, C. incisum was the closest perennial to nearly all annuals, and C. reticulatum was the closest wild species to C. arietinum. Cluster analysis revealed the grouping of all accessions into their distinct species-clusters except for C. reticulatum accessions, ILWC247, ILWC242 and TR54961; the former was found to be closer to the C. arietinum accessions while the latter two clustered with the C. echinospermum group. Small genetic distance values were detected among C. reticulatum accessions (0.282) and between C. reticulatum and C. arietinum (0.301) indicating a close genetic similarity between these two species. Overall, the AFLP-based genetic relationships among accessions and species were congruous with our previous study of genetic relationships using allozymes. The computed level of AFLP variation and its distribution into within and between Cicer species paralleled the previous report based on RAPD analyses. AFLP analysis also confirmed the presence of the closest wild relatives and previous projections of the origin of chickpea in southern Turkey. Results presented in this report indicate that AFLP analysis is an efficient and reliable marker technology in determination of genetic variation and relationships in the genus Cicer. Obviously, the use of AFLP fingerprinting in constructing a detailed genetic map of chickpea and cloning, and characterizing economically important traits would be promising as well.