© 2020 Elsevier LtdThis article explores possibilities for Qatar to create a gas cartel after its exit from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). It also offers a critical review of the country's decision to focus more on natural gas extraction. Qatar, Iran, and Russia have expressed interest in pursuing such a strategy. Although there are several structural and institutional constraints with establishing a cartel, in recent years, regional crises have heightened motivations among many gas exporters to take action in this regard. The ideal case would be for Qatar to pursue economic relations with Russia and Iran without forming a cartel as the gas production strategies of these three countries are different. Maintaining a strong dialogue and economic ties with Russia and Iran while simultaneously working with the West is the best strategy for Qatar. However, Qatar has little room to manoeuvre between the United States (US) on one side and Russia and Iran on the other.