The factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in the prison populations have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the factors associated with the symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of 179 Turkish male prisoners. For this purpose, a model conceptualized by Schaefer and Moos (1998) was used as the theoretical framework for this study. The role of locus of control (as a personality trait); prison type, crime type, time spent in prison (as situational and crime-related variables); and the effect of prison-life stress on the prisoners' level of depression and anxiety symptoms were tested by using two separate structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses. Results revealed that by playing a mediator role, prison-life stress affected locus of control and situational and crime-related variables and hence, indirectly influenced depression and anxiety symptoms. Examining the role of the situational and personality factors on prisoners will provide a new departure for further studies conducted within prison settings.