Electrochemical performance and modeling of lithium-sulfur batteries with varying carbon to sulfur ratios

Michaelis C., Erisen N., PALA D. E. , Koenig G. M.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH, vol.43, no.2, pp.874-883, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/er.4318
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.874-883
  • Keywords: battery, carbon to sulfur ratio, electrode design, electrochemical modeling, lithium-sulfur, HIGH-ENERGY DENSITY, KEY PARAMETERS, DESIGN, CELL, ELECTROLYTE, CHEMISTRY


Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted much research interest because of their high theoretical energy density and low-cost raw materials. While the electrodes are composed of readily available materials, the processes that occur within the cell are complex, and the electrochemical performance of these batteries is very sensitive to a number of cell processing parameters. Herein, a simple electrochemical model will be used to predict, with quantitative agreement, the electrochemical properties of lithium-sulfur cathodes with varying carbon to sulfur ratios. The discharge capacity and the polarization were very similar for the lowest sulfur loadings, while above 23.2 wt% sulfur the gravimetric capacity dropped significantly, and there was an increase in the cell polarization. In addition, a transition in the electrode morphology, from well dispersed to aggregated sulfur at the surface, will be reflected in the change in a critical model parameter demonstrating the sensitivity and functionality of even this simple model in predicting complex behavior in the lithium-sulfur cells.