Power Spectra of Constrained Codes with Level-Based Signaling: Overcoming Finite-Length Challenges

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Centers J., Tan X., HAREEDY A., Calderbank R.

IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol.69, no.8, pp.4971-4986, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 69 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tcomm.2021.3073179
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Communications
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication & Mass Media Index, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.4971-4986
  • Keywords: Spectral analysis, Optical signal processing, Magnetic recording, Data communication, Closed-form solutions, Bandwidth, Task analysis, Power spectra, constrained codes, finite-length, LOCO codes, data storage, data transmission, INTERFERENCE, DENSITY
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


© 1972-2012 IEEE.In various practical systems, certain data patterns are prone to errors if written or transmitted. In magnetic recording and communication over transmission lines, data patterns causing consecutive transitions that are not sufficiently separated are prone to errors. In Flash memory with two levels per cell, data patterns causing high-low-high charge levels on adjacent cells are prone to errors. Constrained codes are used to eliminate error-prone patterns, and they can also achieve other goals. Recently, we introduced efficient binary symmetric lexicographically-ordered constrained (LOCO) codes and asymmetric LOCO (A-LOCO) codes to increase density in magnetic recording systems and lifetime in Flash systems by eliminating the relevant detrimental patterns. Due to their application, LOCO and A-LOCO codes are associated with level-based signaling. Studying the power spectrum of a random signal with certain properties is principal for any storage or transmission system. It reveals important properties such as the average signal power at DC, the bandwidth of the signal, and whether there are discrete power components at certain frequencies. In this paper, we first modify a framework from the literature in order to introduce a method to derive the power spectrum of a sequence of constrained data associated with level-based signaling. We apply our method to infinitely long sequences satisfying symmetric and asymmetric constraints. Next, we show how to generalize the method such that it works for a stream of finite-length codewords as well, thus demonstrating how to overcome the associated finite-length challenges. We use the generalized method to devise closed forms for the spectra of finite-length LOCO and A-LOCO codes from their transition diagrams. Our LOCO and A-LOCO spectral derivations can be performed for any code length and can be extended to other constrained codes. We plot these power spectra, and discuss various important spectral properties for both LOCO and A-LOCO codes. We also briefly discuss an alternative method for deriving the power spectrum and introduce an idea towards reaching the spectra of self-clocked codes.