A General Non-Binary LDPC Code Optimization Framework Suitable for Dense Flash Memory and Magnetic Storage

HAREEDY A., Lanka C., Dolecek L.

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.34, no.9, pp.2402-2415, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/jsac.2016.2603719
  • Journal Name: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2402-2415
  • Keywords: LDPC codes, non-binary codes, absorbing sets, weight consistency matrices, Flash memory, asymmetric channels, magnetic recording, error floor, ABSORBING SETS, TRAPPING SETS, ALGORITHM
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2017 IEEE.Transmission channels underlying modern dense storage systems, e.g., Flash memory and magnetic recording (MR) systems, significantly differ from canonical channels, like additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. While existing low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes optimized for symmetric, AWGN-like channels are being actively considered for Flash applications, we demonstrate that, due to channel asymmetry, such approaches are inadequate. We introduce a refined definition of absorbing sets, which we call general absorbing sets of type two (GASTs), and study the combinatorial properties of GASTs. We then present the weight consistency matrix (WCM), which succinctly captures key properties in a GAST. Furthermore, we show how to customize the WCM definition such that it suits other special subclasses of GASTs. Based on these new concepts, we then develop a new, general combinatorial code optimization framework, which we call the WCM framework, and demonstrate its effectiveness on the realistic highly-asymmetric normal-Laplace mixture (NLM) Flash channel. Moreover, we show that our framework can be customized to optimize non-binary LDPC (NB-LDPC) codes for other asymmetric channels, channels with memory (incorporated in MR systems), and canonical symmetric channels. For all the channels we have simulated NB-LDPC codes over, the codes optimized using the WCM framework enjoy at least 1 order, and up to nearly 2 orders of magnitude performance gain in the uncorrectable bit error rate (UBER) or the frame error rate (FER) relative to the unoptimized codes. Our simulations also show that codes optimized for symmetric channels are not the best choice for asymmetric channels.