The Andalusian International University held a workshop entitled Temporary wetlands' future in drylands under the projected global change scenario in March 2020 in Baeza, Spain, with 26 participants from 10 countries. The workshop objectives were to promote international cooperation and scientific exchange on the conservation and protection of temporary wetlands. The participants highlighted the extreme conditions that temporary and permanent wetlands, ponds, and shallow lakes are currently facing and predicted a dismal future for these systems due to climate change. To foster a holistic view of these ecosystems, the workshop included wetland watersheds. It was concluded that the main threats are those affecting water quality and quantity as well as egg-seed banks, species population dynamics, and food webs. The inherent characteristics of waterbodies in drylands, including high resilience and resistance to harsh conditions, are already negatively impacted by direct human actions and climate change. Another threat is the time lag between scientific warnings about threats and the social and political concern leading to mitigating actions. Thus, more effective actions to protect and conserve temporary wetlands are essential. Research networks could help stimulate the necessary conservation actions, but the global recession due to the COVID-19 pandemic will pose a challenge as economies are burdened with urgent expenditure. This special issue of the journal Inland Waters is the outcome of the workshop presentations and is composed of the ensuing papers on wetlands in drylands.