Aim The purpose of the present study was to improve language and cognitive development of infant and young children residing in institutional settings in Turkey. Method In Study I, there were 12 children with a mean age of 35 months in the intervention group and 12 children with a mean age of 36 months in the control group. Results When both groups' pre-test post-test general development t scores and cognitive and language sub-domain developmental gaps were compared, neither the time nor the time by group interactions were significant. Nevertheless, both groups' developmental gap appeared to decline. In Study II, children were recruited from the same institution and randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. Results indicated that infants and children who were in the intervention group showed a decline in the language and cognitive development gaps, whereas the control group children's developmental gaps were increased. Conclusions It can be concluded that by increasing the quality of care in children's homes infants' and young children's development can be enhanced.