This paper reports the results of an experimental program, which aimed to investigate the alkali reactivity of chert and the effect of a moderate-calcium fly ash on the alkali-silica reaction. To determine the expansions, mortar bars were cast and tested in accordance with ASTM C1260. Mortar aggregate was replaced by chert, in controlled amounts, to find out the pessimum limit, if any. To evaluate the degree of cracking, sonic pulse velocity measurements and petrographic analysis were carried out on the cracked bars and on the thin sections taken from these bars, respectively. In the next series of tests, limestone and chert were blended together as mortar aggregate and cement was replaced by different dosages of fly ash to examine the changes in the mortar bar expansion as well as in the chemistry of reaction products. Microstructural observations were done on polished sections using a scanning electron microscope, equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results showed that the chert used in this investigation had a pessimum proportion in the range of 5-15%. Sufficient fly-ash additions suppressed the expansion caused by chert. The study also revealed out that as the CaO/Na2Oeq of alkali-silica gel increased, the expansivity of the gel decreased. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.