Liquefaction induced ground deformations at Hotel Sapanca during Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey earthquake

Cetin K., Youd T., Seed R., Bray J., Sancio R., Lettis W., ...More

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol.22, no.9-12, pp.1083-1092, 2002 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 9-12
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0267-7261(02)00134-3
  • Journal Name: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1083-1092
  • Keywords: liquefaction, ground displacement, lateral spreading, settlement, standard penetration test, cone penetration test, Kocaeli earthquake, gravelly sands
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This paper presents a study of liquefaction-induced ground deformations at the Hotel Sapanca site during the 1999 Kocaeli (Izmit)-Turkey earthquake. The paper discusses: (1) observed ground deformations and displacements after the earthquake, (2) the results of field investigations by means of borings and in situ index tests including standard penetration tests (SPT), static cone penetration tests (CPT) and piezocone (CPTU) tests, (3) analyses of observed ground settlements and lateral deformations by a suite of methods, and (4) comparisons of observed and calculated ground movements. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.