This paper aims to analyze the challenges of population growth and resource scarcity in the Arab countries of the Levant. As the region has suffered from ongoing conflicts, civil wars, and political crises, the challenges of population growth and resource scarcity, coupled with environmental challenges has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on the problems associated with a growing population, such as an increased likelihood of unemployment and the emergence of a middle class poor in the region. Coupled with crony capitalism and patronage networks, it argues that the problems of youth are immediate and the necessity of inclusive policies is pressing. The paper follows by with a section that addresses environmental challenges and climate change. The linkage between environmental degradation and security is analyzed. The paper problematizes the Arab state, its regime survival strategies and its resistance to change as the main impediments for sustainability, growth and inclusiveness in the Levant.