In this study, the causal nexus between child mortality rate, fertility rate, GDP, household final consumption expenditure, and food production index in Ghana was investigated spanning from 1971 to 2013 using the Autoregressive and Distributed Lag (ARDL) method. The study tested for unit root, ARDL bounds cointegration test, ARDL long-run elasticities, Granger causality, and Variance Decomposition Analysis using Cholesky technique. There was evidence of long-run equilibrium relationship running from fertility rate, food production index, GDP, and household final consumption expenditure to the mortality rate. There was evidence of a bidirectional causality running from household final consumption expenditure to fertility rate. Evidence from the Variance Decomposition Analysis shows that, almost 6% of future fluctuations in mortality rate are due to shocks in the food production index, while 2% of future fluctuations in mortality rate are due to shocks in fertility rate. Evidence from the study shows that the increasing levels of social determinants like Gross Domestic Product and Household final consumption expenditure will help reduce child mortality rates in Ghana. In order to reduce child mortality rates among children under-5, infants and vulnerable in Ghana, there is the need to end hunger and ensure access to safe and nutritious food.