© Copyright 2022, Society of Petroleum EngineersCarbon capture and underground gas storage technologies have been an area of significant focus in oil and gas industry over the past few decades. They reduce the carbon footprint of oilfield activities and have a critical role in the energy transition efforts by the industry. This study focuses on conducting a thorough review of literature related to latest advances in carbon capture and underground gas storage methods including real-field applications of these technologies. The future potential of these technologies in enabling the oil and gas industry to achieve its ESG goals are also discussed. This chapter examines carbon capture and underground gas storage (CCS) technologies and summarizes various types of CCS techniques such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. It describes the important operational principles, efficient methods of technology deployment, and best practices to ensure positive project economics. Additionally, the use of the CCS as a method to enable enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the oil and gas industry, as well as application areas and challenges faced in the use of CCS in oilfield operations, are discussed. The latest advances in this technology from a global perspective and the future potential of CCS as a critical driver in helping achieve sustainability goals for the oil and gas industry are summarized. Critical factors related to the application of the CCS, including the key decision variables to be considered while implementing projects that uses these technologies are provided to be used as a guideline in decision making. Examples of the use of these technologies to improve the sustainability of oil and gas production operations are provided, as well as the benefits, drawbacks, and challenges in scaling up the use of these technologies in fields are discussed in detail. This study closes the gap in the literature by providing a comprehensive overview of the current status of the CCS technologies and guidelines for their implementation in oil and gas fields. It serves as a single source of information to the oil and gas industry, while laying out relevant data and information related to the CCS technologies, highlighting the latest advances in their application and the future of these technologies from a global perspective.