On the Effects of PA Nonlinearities for Hybrid Beamforming Based Wideband Massive MIMO Systems

Salman M. B., Güvensen G. M.

IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC) / Workshop on NOMA for 5G and Beyond, ELECTR NETWORK, 7 - 11 June 2020 identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/icc40277.2020.9149193
  • Keywords: Massive MIMO, Hybrid Beamforming, PA nonlinearities, Digital Predistortion, DIGITAL PREDISTORTION
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, we present a general framework for the investigation of the effects of power amplifier (PA) nonlinearities on the hybrid beamforming based massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In literature, much of the attention is devoted to phase shifters as the analog beamformer stage; however, in this work, a more comprehensive scenario, based on fully connected analog beamformer architecture, is considered. Firstly, out-of-band (OOB) radiation pattern is evaluated to investigate the spatial characteristics of the undesired radiation. It is observed that OOB radiation due to nonlinear distortion is concentrated on the beamforming directions. In addition, a framework is proposed to design digital predistorters (DPD) and a conventional DPD architecture is adopted to the proposed design framework. It is shown that conventional DPD can solve the OOB problem for a single user environment; however, its performance degrades in the multi-user case. Even though, there are many studies on the effects of nonlinear PA distortions, a few of them consider the achievable information rate (AIR). In this work, a framework is adopted to study the capacity of the considered system under PA nonlinearities.