In this study, the determinants of private R&D investment are examined at the level of firms in the Turkish manufacturing industry. We focus our attention on the effect of public R&D support programs. Our findings indicate that public R&D support significantly and positively affects private R&D investment. There seems to be even an "acceleration effect" on firm-financed R&D expenditures. Smaller R&D performers benefit more from R&D support and perform more R&D. In addition, technology transfer from abroad and domestic R&D activity show up as complementary processes. Given the scarcity of studies on R&D support in technologically weaker economies, our hope is that the less-developed countries can exploit these findings in constructing socially beneficial technology policies. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.