As an initial part of a revisional study based on the genus Salvia L. (Lamiaceae), extensive field studies, herbarium and literature surveys have been conducted on the basis of the S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed and S. modesta Boiss. in order to understand their taxonomic status. As a result of the present study, S. brachyantha and S. modesta are accepted as distinct species. Moreover, S. brachyantha subsp. tankutiana Bagherpour, Celep, Kahraman & Dogan subsp. nova is first described from central Anatolia, Turkey. The diagnostic morphological and micromorphological characters of S. brachyantha subsp. brachyantha, S. brachyantha subsp. tankutiana and S. modesta are discussed. Distribution, conservation status and photograph of the taxa are also given.