Wetland spectral unmixing using multispectral satellite images


Ozer E., LELOĞLU U. M.

GEOCARTO INTERNATIONAL, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10106049.2022.2102225
  • Journal Name: GEOCARTO INTERNATIONAL
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Wetland, spectral unmixing, classification, fractional land cover, NATURE-RESERVE ELWNNR, LAKE WETLAND, SPATIOTEMPORAL VARIATION, VEGETATION, MATRIX, ALGORITHM, LANDSAT, CLASSIFICATIONS, INUNDATION, COVER
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Wetlands are of great importance to the diversity of biota and ecology, thereby to humans. Monitoring such valuable areas is essential for sustainable development. When the sizes, geographic distribution, and total coverage of wetlands across the earth are taken into account, remote sensing shines out as the most economically and technically feasible method to realise the monitoring task. Concerning the utilisation of medium resolution satellite images as the input, the pixel-level approach falls short of understanding the wetland dynamics since vast amounts of pixels in such areas have mixed content. This study proposes a framework for determining the extent of wetlands and extracting their ground characteristics at the sub-pixel level. In the extent determination part, Tasselled Cap Water Index (TCWI) values are calculated on time series, and their variations throughout the year are modelled by fitting a double-sided sigmoid function. This information is coupled with Digital Terrain Model (DTM) thresholding to extract the final extent. A sub-pixel analysis is proposed for the latter part, which includes adopting a systematic approach using a three-element (soil, vegetation, water) scheme for establishing wetland ontology and implementing supervised spectral unmixing enhanced by band weight optimisation. Balikdami, one of the most impressive wetlands of Turkey, is chosen as the test area. Open-access optical satellite data acquired by the Sentinel-2 constellation are utilised as the primary data input. Since the abundance values of land cover classes in each Sentinel-2 pixel are estimated, reference abundance data with a 10 m ground sampling distance (GSD) are generated using four-band aerial images having a 30 cm GSD for the verification stage. A new method entitled 'Abundance Confusion Matrix' is introduced for comparison and detailed assessment of fractional land cover. Experimental results demonstrate that the extent determination is addressed with a precision of 99.21% and a miss rate of 5.75%. In addition, the abundance values of land cover classes are identified with an overall accuracy of 66.17% after the optimisation step. The proposed method proves to be a valuable tool for the detailed monitoring of wetlands.