Traditionally, traffic enforcement has been an important means of improving traffic safety. Many studies have provided evidence of connections between the level of police enforcement and both driving behavior and the number of traffic accidents. In Northern Kosovo, there has been little, if any, traffic enforcement during the last 13 years. This situation has created a very rare research opportunity - it is now possible to directly study the influence of traffic enforcement on the attitudes and behavior of drivers by comparing two regions, one with traffic enforcement and one without it (Serbia vs. Northern Kosovo). The sample in the present study consisted of 424 drivers (204 from Serbia and 220 from Northern Kosovo). Questionnaires included items about the behaviors of the drivers (e.g., speeding, seat belt, drunk driving) and their attitudes. We also conducted field observations of driving behavior. The results indicated that the lack of enforcement affects almost every type of behavior that we examined. Compared with drivers in Serbia, drivers in Northern Kosovo drive faster, exceed speed limits more frequently, use seat belts less frequently, drive after exceeding the legal limit for alcohol more often, commit aggressive and ordinary violations more frequently and are generally involved in more risky situations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.