ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF PM10 AND PM2.5 IN ERZURUM URBAN ATMOSPHERE, TURKEY


BAYRAKTAR H., Turalioglu F. S. , Tuncel G., Zararsiz A.

FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN, vol.20, no.5, pp.1124-1134, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Journal Name: FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1124-1134
  • Keywords: Air pollution, particulate matter (PM), coarse particles, fine particles, elemental composition, enrichment factors, Erzurum, CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION, PARTICULATE MATTER, TRACE-ELEMENTS, SOURCE APPORTIONMENT, COARSE PARTICLES, RURAL SITES, AREA, FINE, AEROSOL, EPISODES
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

This study investigated the elemental concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and their relationships with meteorological factors in Erzurum urban centre, Turkey. The average elemental concentration PM10 values for Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni in Erzurum city atmosphere were 2112, 184, 2134, 746, 6, 44, 38 and 2 ng/m(3), respectively, and that of PM2.5 were 103, 30, 717, 86, 4, 6, 70 and 1 ng/m(3), respectively. Furthermore, during the sampling period, whilst on average 90% of some alkali metals (Si, Ca, Al, Mg) were observed in large size fraction, on average 55% of some elements (S, Zn, Pb, K) were measured in fine size fraction. For the purposes of investigating the sources of the elemental PM concentrations measured, the widely documented crustal enrichment factors method was used. K, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn were observed to be from crustal sources in coarse fraction (PM10-2.5), but S, Cu, Zn, Pb were found to be anthropogenic. Concentrations of fine fraction (PM2.5) elements Mg, Ca, Al, Si, Ti were found to be entirely of crustal origin (as per coarse fraction), and both crustal and anthropogenic sources were important in concentrations of K, Cr, Mn and Ni, whereas S, Cu Zn and Pb levels were entirely of anthropogenic origin. Moreover, fine mode fraction of PM (PM2.5) showed considerable seasonal variations of elemental concentrations which was thought to originate from anthropogenic sources.