Assessment of rockfall hazard around Afyon Castle, Turkey

Topal T., Akin K. M., Ozden U. A.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY, vol.53, no.1, pp.191-200, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00254-006-0633-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.191-200
  • Keywords: afyon castle, andesite, rockfall, risk, zonation map, RESTRAINING NETS, DESIGN
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The Afyon Castle is a tourist destination and a historical site in the City of Afyon in Turkey. The Castle is located on a steep hill, with a height of 226 m. In close proximity to the Castle there are settlements. The hill consists of trachitic andesite. The rock contains columnar joints and flow layering. Owing to these discontinuities, blocks of varying sizes had fallen down. The settlement areas near the Castle are now in danger because of the rockfall risk. In this study, rockfall analysis was carried out along nine profiles of the hill. Fall-out distance, bounce height, kinetic energy and velocity of the rocks along each profile were investigated. The results of the analyses were evaluated, and the areas delineated as susceptible to rockfall risk are highlighted. Remedial measures including rock bolts and protective fences were suggested on the basis of the field observations and the rockfall risk evaluation.