The purpose of this study was to investigate son preference with respect to desired number of children and perceived instrumentality of children in relation to a number of values. The sample included respondents of Turkic origin residing in Ashgabat and Baku, the respective capitals of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan. The results revealed that Turkmens desired a greater number of children and ascribed greater importance to having children than did Azeris. Turkmen men and women, as well as Azeri men, desired more sons than daughters, and Azeri women showed a preference for sons only when forced to choose. Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships between age and number of children desired for both samples and between educational level and number of children desired for the Turkmen sample. Correlational analyses revealed that educational level was related positively to daughters' and negatively to sons' instrumentality for furthering some values for men in the Ashgabat sample.