Various morphologies of TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by HNO3 assisted hydrothermal treatment with respect to the acid molarity (1 M, 3 M, and 8 M), temperature (110, 140, and 180 degrees C), and time (1, 3, and 6 h). An additional sample was synthesized inside the protonated titanate nanoribbon coated vessel with the acid molarity of 8M at 140 degrees C for 3 h. The crystal structure and morphology of the nanostructures synthesized were investigated using X-Ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The results revealed that lower acid concentrations, longer synthesis durations and higher temperatures favored anatase phase formation. Meanwhile, a phase pure 3D lotus structure ruffle TiO2 could be obtained by hydrothermal synthesis at 8M HNO3 concentration at 140 degrees C for 3 h using protonated Htitanate nanoribbons. A probable mechanism for the evolution of 3D ruffle lotus structure was highlighted. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.