'Teacher' is among the most influential variables in educational achievements, and 'actions' of a teacher are powerful indicators of this influence. Since the actions are assumed to be the reflections of certain cognitions, 'teacher cognition becomes a significant variable to study in educational research. In this sense, this quantitative study aims to investigate EFL instructors' language learning cognitions regarding linguistic aptitude, priorities in language learning, and good language learners as well as to identify factors influencing those cognitions. The participants consisted of 606 EFL instructors teaching in 15 different higher education institutions in Ankara, Turkey. The data were collected through a cross-sectional inventory and analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive results indicated that the participants tended to adopt an interactionist perspective emphasizing the significance of the environment around individuals learning a language; a performance-oriented approach focusing on real-life functions of language skills and areas; and a slight orientation to legislative learners who can create their own rules and decide on their own priorities. The inferential analyses revealed that the participants' cognitions on certain aspects differed in relation to age, teaching experience, and academic background. The findings obtained from this study offer implications for teachers as well as other stakeholders in the contexts of both pre-service and in-service teacher education.