PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability

KOÇAK M. , Mihalopoulos N., Tutsak E., Theodosi C., Zarmpas P., Kalegeri P.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.22, no.22, pp.18076-18092, 2015 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 22
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-015-4928-2
  • Page Numbers: pp.18076-18092


Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 +/- 16.7 and 9.8 +/- 6.9 mu g m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl-, NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-), Na+, NH4 (+), K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl-, Na+, and Mg2+ illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31 %) and sea salt (13 %) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3 % of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (similar to 74 %) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively.