in: Neoliberal Transformation of Education in Turkey, Kemal İnal, Editor, Palgrave Macmillan, London , London, pp.139-150, 2012
niversities and nonprofit foundation (private) universities.1 This dual structure was established based on changes in the Higher Education Act, following the 1980 military coup. The military intervention not only radically restructured the political arena by leading to the forming of a new constitution (1982), but also made the necessary policy arrangements for the integration of the Turkish economy integration into the global market system (Ercan 2005). One of the most important aspects of these policies was the transformation of the higher education system. This chapter provides an analysis of the emergence and the development of foundation universities (FUs) and examines their role in the neoliberalization of the higher education system in Turkey. To that end, the chapter is divided into three parts: first, a brief history of FUs in Turkey will be presented. Then, part 2 will analyze the first phase of the rise of FUs, which is the period between 1984 and 1999. Here, the basic characteristics of the first generation of FUs and the mechanisms employed for their integration into the neoliberal market system will be examined. The third part will focus on the second phase, the expansion period since 2000.