Kangal and Akbash dogs are the two well-known shepherd dog breeds in Turkey. In order to contribute to the understanding of the genetic relationship between Kangal dogs, Akbash dogs and the dogs from different regions of Eurasia, 585 base pair (bp) segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced from Kangals and Akbashes. Sequences of the Kangal and Akbash dogs examined in the present study were comparatively examined with those of previous studies on dogs. Consensus neighbour-joining tree with bootstrapping, which is constructed based on pairwise F-ST values between populations, indicated that Kangal dogs and Akbash dogs are on different branches of the tree. Furthermore, the nodes of these branches were supported with high bootstrap values. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Kangal and Akbash dogs might have descended maternally from different origins along the evolutionary history of domestic dogs. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.