The anatomy, palynology, morphology and distribution of the trichomes on the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf, an endemic species in Turkey, were studied in order to understand the usefulness of these characteristics for systematic purposes. Some anatomical characters such as (1-)2-24-rowed pith rays in roots, dorsiventral leaves, obviously larger upper epidermal cells, and two to three large vascular bundles in the center and two to four small subsidiary bundles in the wings of petiole provide information of taxonomical significance. Three main types of trichomes were observed on the stem, inflorescence axis, leaf and calyx surfaces of S. chrysophylla. They are peltate, capitate glandular and non-glandular. Capitate glandular and non-glandular trichomes were further subdivided into several kinds. Glandular trichomes are present in abundance on the inflorescence axis and calyx, but non-glandular ones were mainly situated on the leaf and stem. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies on the pollen grains have revealed that they are oblate-spheroidal and their exine ornamentation is bireticulate-perforate. (C) 2009 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.