Issues related to the development and management of the Euphrates-Tigris basin are discussed. Historical perspectives on water conflict, geography, hydrology, water and land resources development in riparian countries, namely Turkey, Syria and Iraq, are examined. Problems and misconceptions related to water utilization are analysed with regard to water availability, water loss, water rights, the role of dams and reservoirs, and environmental problems of the Mesopotamian marshlands. Advantages and areas of co-operation between riparians are reviewed. Water conflict in the Euphrates-Tigris basin requires a hydro-political approach that covers legal, political, technical and economic aspects of its multi-dimensional characteristics.