Atmospheric Deposition of Macronutrients (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen and Phosphorous) onto the Black Sea and Implications on Marine Productivity*

KOÇAK M., Mihalopoulos N., Tutsak E., Violaki K., Theodosi C., Zarmpas P., ...More

JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, vol.73, no.4, pp.1727-1739, 2016 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 73 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1175/jas-d-15-0039.1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1727-1739


Two-sized aerosol samples were obtained from a rural site located close to Sinop on the south coastline of the Black Sea. In addition, bulk deposition samples were collected at Varna, located on the west coastline of the Black Sea. Both aerosol and deposition samples were analyzed for the main macronutrients, NO3-, NH4+, and PO43-. The mean aerosol nitrate and ammonium concentrations were 7.1 +/- 5.5 and 22.8 +/- 17.8 nmol m(-3), respectively. The mean aerosol phosphate concentration was 0.69 +/- 0.31 nmol m(-3), ranging from 0.21 to 2.36 nmol m(-3). Interestingly, phosphate concentration over Sinop was substantially higher than those of most Mediterranean sites. Comparison of the atmospheric and riverine inputs for the Black Sea revealed that atmospheric dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) only ranged between 4% and 13%, while the atmospheric dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) fluxes had significantly higher contributions with values ranging from 12% to 37%. The molar N:P ratios in atmospheric deposition for Sinop and Varna were 13 and 14, respectively, both of which were lower than the Redfield ratio (16). The atmospheric molar N:P ratios over the Black Sea were considerably lower than those reported for riverine fluxes (41) and the Mediterranean region (more than 200). The atmospheric P flux can sustain 0.5%-5.2% of the primary production, whereas the N flux can sustain 0.4%-4.8% of the primary production. The contribution of the atmospheric flux may enhance by 2.6 when the new production is considered.