Extracellular nanovesicles, particularly exosomes, can deliver their diverse bioactive biomolecular content, including miRNAs, proteins, and lipids, thus providing a context for investigating the capability of exosomes to induce stem cells toward lineage-specific cells and tissue regeneration. In this study, it is demonstrated that rat subventricular zone neural stem cell-derived exosomes (rSVZ-NSCExo) can control neural-lineage specification of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Microarray analysis shows that the miRNA content of rSVZ-NSCExo is a faithful representation of rSVZ tissue. Through immunocytochemistry, gene expression, and multi-omics analyses, the capability to use rSVZ-NSCExo to induce hMSCs into a neuroglial or neural stem cell phenotype and genotype in a temporal and dose-dependent manner via multiple signaling pathways is demonstrated. The current study presents a new and innovative strategy to modulate hMSCs fate by harnessing the molecular content of exosomes, thus suggesting future opportunities for rSVZ-NSCExo in nerve tissue regeneration.