Impact of the fi rst, second and third peak of the COVID-19 pandemic on anxiety, depression and stress symptoms of healthcare workers

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Ibrahim G., Abdullah B., Cansu U., Leyla A., Demir G. P., Taha T., ...More

Bratislava Medical Journal, vol.123, no.11, pp.833-839, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 123 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4149/bll_2022_133
  • Journal Name: Bratislava Medical Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.833-839
  • Keywords: anxiety, COVID-19, depression, MENTAL-HEALTH, STUDENTS, LOCKDOWN
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022, Bratislava Medical Journal. All Rights Reserved.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have been conducted on the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the mental health of health workers will be affected among the number of peaks during the pandemic has not been evaluated yet. The study aims to investigate the effects of the fi rst, second, and third peaks of COVID-19 on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in healthcare workers. METHODS: The current study included 4031 healthcare workers, 1051 during the fi rst peak period, 1409 during the second peak period, and 1571 during the third peak period. The Depression Anxiety Stress scale-21(DASS-21) was used to assess the participants’ levels of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.74 ± 7.95, and 2634 (66.3 %) were female. 36.9 %(n = 1486) of the participants were physicians, 41.1 % (n = 1655) were nurses and 22.1 % (n = 890) were other healthcare workers. A statistically signifi cant difference was documented in the DASS-21 anxiety (F(2:4028) = 502.893, p < 0.001, Post-hoc = 3. Peak > 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 depression (F(2:4028) = 46.034, p < 0.001, Post-hoc = 3. Peak > 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 stress (F(2:4028) = 65.548, p < 0.001, Post-hoc = 3. Peak = 2. Peak > 1. Peak), and DASS-21 total scores (F(2:4028) = 156.860, p < 0.001, Post-hoc = 3. Peak > 2. Peak > 1. Peak) of healthcare workers during all three peak periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our fi ndings show that as the peak number rises, so do the levels of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers. As a result, it is possible to assert that prolongation of the COVID-19 pandemic worsens mental problems