Poly(sebacic anhydride) (PSA) is a promising polymer for the production of drug delivery vehicles. The aim of this work is to study the effect of preparation parameters on the quality of the nanoparticles. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded PSA nanocapsules were prepared by an emulsion method. Effects of factors such as type of organic solvent, co-solute (surfactant) and its concentration on drug-loading efficiency, particle size and size distribution, morphology and release profile were examined to gain insight in the preparation and stability of nanostructures. Particles with sizes in the range of 218-1198 nm were prepared. The smallest particles with a narrow size distribution were prepared by using polyvinyl alcohol as a co-solute and dichloromethane as a solvent. Efficiency and intracellular release of doxorubicin from the formulated particles were studied on MDA-MB-231 cells. It was observed that DOX-loaded PSA particles can diffuse into the cells and intracellular antitumour activity is directly related to the released amount of drug from the PSA nanocapsules.