This paper aims to examine the nature of the new elementary school curriculum in Turkey. In particular, the authors provide a coherent picture of the fundamentals, basic elements and the classroom implications of the new curriculum development initiative in five content areas: mathematics, science, social science, life science, and Turkish. This paper discusses the fundamental principles underlying the curriculum reform, including social, individual, economical, and historical and cultural aspects. In addition, the paper addresses the main motivators: Turkey's integration with the European Union, major issues with Turkish students' academic performance in national and international arenas which led the curriculum change. It is believed that the implementation of the new curriculum will give new insights to the policy makers, classroom teachers, students, parents and other related parties. The results of the implementation of the curriculum will open new opportunities for researchers to identify the strengths and drawbacks for further improvements.