© 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.Objective: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in major changes in daily life and economic conditions while heightening physical and mental health problems, including health anxiety. Health authorities and elected officials have encouraged individuals to engage in health behaviors. Perceptions of and reactions to these changes could be subject to individual differences. In this line, the current study investigated the predictive roles of health promoting behaviors, sensory processing sensitivity, and their interactions with health anxiety. Design and measures: In this cross-sectional study, 355 participants (73% female, 25.9% male) whose ages range from 19 to 72 (M = 25.91, SD = 9.80) filled out self-reported measures on health promoting behaviors, sensory processing sensitivity, and health anxiety via an online platform between April and May 2020. Results: It was revealed that caring for a healthy diet, taking responsibility for health and sensory processing sensitivity, but not physical activity and stress management, were associated with health anxiety. Diagnoses and perceptions of physical and mental health problems also contributed to health anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Individuals with higher levels of sensory processing sensitivity and health responsibility were more likely to experience higher levels of health anxiety, while typical physical activities and stress management behaviors were less likely to have an impact during the COVID-19 pandemic. These results highlight the importance of having a healthy diet and the need for pandemic-specific interventions for stress management and sport activities.