A literature search from 2007 to 2014 was conducted to identify publications where principally LC-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been employed in food analysis. Of a total of 212 relevant references, only 22 papers were from 2007-10, but in subsequent years there has been a steady growth in publications with 38-55 relevant papers being published each year from 2011 to 2014. In the food safety area, over 50% of the published papers were equally divided between pesticides, veterinary drug residues and natural toxins (including mycotoxins) focused primarily on multi-analyte target analysis. LC-Orbitrap-HRMS was also found to be increasingly important for the analysis of bioactive substances, principally phenolic compounds in foods. A number of studies reported for the first time the identification of new fungal metabolites, predominantly various conjugated forms of known mycotoxins. Novel process contaminants were also identified by LC-Orbitrap-HRMS, as were various substances used for food adulteration and bioactive substances in herbal products and dietary supplements. Untargeted analysis is seen as a major future trend where HRMS plays a significant role. Retrospective analysis of scanned high-resolution mass spectra in conjunction with relevant databases can provide new insights. Metabolomics is also being increasingly used where foods are being profiled through fingerprinting using HRMS. All evidence points towards future growth in the number of applications of HRMS in food safety and quality, as the power of this technique gains wider recognition.