This article begins with a brief review of the socioeconomic situation, energy resources, and energy consumptions in Turkey. The estimates for the sustainability years of fossil fuels and the potential of renewable energies are given. Hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar, wind, wave, sea currents, and salt gradient are, in order of priority, listed among the renewable energy resources of the country. The importance of energy conservation is discussed in conjunction with the research results produced for the conditions of the country. For the reference year 1989, potentials for energy savings are estimated in the residental, industrial, transport, and power sectors. The validity of the findings is discussed. Air pollution levels due to fossil-fuel consumption are pointed out. In this context, the role of renewables is indicated. The economics of solar and biogas heating systems are reviewed. The article concludes with a discussion of research gaps in national energy planning. Exploitation and management of indigenous fossil fuels, efficient utilization of energy, application of renewable energy systems, and implementation of environmental regulations are listed among the main topics.