This study aimed to examine the roles of personality traits, traumatic event types, coping, rumination, and social support in explaining posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in a representative community sample of 498 Turkish adults. The results of 2 multiple regression analyses showed that PTS was associated with neuroticism, experiencing events involving intentional/ assaultive violence, intrusive and deliberate rumination, and fatalistic coping. In contrast, PTG was related to conscientiousness, openness to experience, injury/shocking and sudden-death type of events, deliberate rumination, problem-solving coping, and perceived social support. When all variables were entered into the equation, almost two thirds of the variability (R2 =.64) in the severity of PTS and more than one third of the variability (R-2 =.40) in PTG was explained. The findings can aid in the development of psychosocial support programs for individuals experiencing traumatic events.