A novel three-dimensional construct was designed to serve as a substitute for the natural meniscus tissue, and tested in vitro. The design consisted of mats of aligned collagen micro/nanofibers, entrapped within a macroporous poly(l-lactic acid)/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) foam coated with Ca+2-cross-linked alginic acid. Fibrochondrocytes derived from human meniscus were tested in vitro to study cell attachment and proliferation. After a 21-day culture, the cells populating the constructs were shown to produce extracellular matrix components specific for fibrocartilages, such as collagen Types I and II and aggrecan. Coating the foam with alginate increased the compressive modulus of the collagen-containing constructs (from 320 to 381 kPa, after 21 days of incubation with fibrochondrocytes) but decreased cell attachment and proliferation, as well as aggrecan production. Collagen fibers substantially increased the tensile modulus of the cell-seeded constructs (from 0.98 to 1.71 MPa for uncoated and from 0.67 to 1.32 MPa for coated samples). All constructs produced extracellular matrix components specific for fibrocartilages. These findings indicate that these constructs have potential for use as meniscus substitutes.