Effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol use on risks of cancers of the larynx and lung have been evaluated extensively in industrialized countries, Few studies on the effect of these risk factors have been reported from developing countries. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risks of laryngeal and lung cancers in men by subsite and cell type in relation to smoking and alcohol drinking in Turkey, a country where smoking and alcohol consumption patterns are different from those in industrialized countries. We identified 832 laryngeal and 1,210 lung cancer cases and 829 controls with information on smoking and alcohol use (amount and duration) and histologic cell type from an oncology treatment center of a Social Security Agency hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, admitted between 1979 and 1984. Both laryngeal and lung cancer showed significant associations with smoking and alcohol drinking, but no monotonic dose-response was obtained for alcohol drinking. Among smokers, the highest risks were observed in the supraglottis region of the larynx (odds ratio COR] = 4.1) after adjustment for age and alcohol use. Among alcohol drinkers, the highest risks were observed in the glottis region of the larynx (OR = 1.7) after adjustment for age and smoking, In the analysis by the cell type of lung cancer among ever-smokers, small cell type showed the highest risk (OR = 5.4), while it showed no association with alcohol drinking. Cumulative cigarette use (pack-years) and number of cigarettes per day showed stronger associations than years smoked for both cancer sites. The relative risks of joint exposure to smoking and alcohol were 12.2 for laryngeal cancer and 14.1 for lung cancer among heavy smokers and heavy alcohol drinkers. This study provides epidemiologic evidence from Turkey that smoking and alcohol use are associated with risks of cancers of the larynx and lung.