Energy and exergy utilization in Turkey have been analysed. We have evaluated the conversion sector and end uses for transportation, industrial, residential and commercial applications. Energy efficiencies are about 15% for transportation, 45% for thermal and hydropower plants, 55% for residential and commercial uses and 58% for industrial applications. The exergy efficiencies are about 6% for residential and commercial uses, 15% for transportation, 33% for industrial applications and 45% for the utility sector. Overall averages are 35% for energy and 13% for exergy utilization. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.