Tranilast is an antiallergic drug that interferes with proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cell induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). We investigated the local effect of tranilast on neointimal hyperplasia using tranilastcoated prosthetic grafts. The inner sides of the thin-walled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts were coated with chitosan and tranilast containing chitosan solution. Wistar albino rats (32) were used in the study. Patches (1 x 2 mm) for vascular grafts were prepared. Three groups were tested: group 1 (n = 12; tranilast coated), group 2 (n = 10; adhesive-only film-layer-coated), and group 3 (n = 10; normal ePTFE patch grafts sutured to the carotid arteries of the rats). Recipient sites of the carotid arteries were excised 4 weeks after surgery. All sections were examined histologically for graft patency, thrombus formation, and neointimal thickness. Expression of PDGF, fibroblast growth factor, and TGF-beta 1 on cross-sections of the neointima were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. No significant differences were found regarding mean neointimal thicknesses. PDGF and TGF-beta-1 expressions were significantly lower in group 1. Although a decrease in local effect of tranilast was observed for growth factor expressions at a drug concentration of 0.05 mg/cm(2), a significant reduction in neointimal hyperplasia was not achieved. The coating concentration of 0.05 mg/cm(2) may have been too low to produce an antiproliferative effect. Given our promising results, further studies are recommended and planned using different drug concentrations and time intervals.