Turkish energy sector development and the Paris Agreement goals: A CGE model assessment

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Kat B., Paltsev S., Yuan M.

ENERGY POLICY, vol.122, pp.84-96, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 122
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.enpol.2018.07.030
  • Journal Name: ENERGY POLICY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.84-96
  • Keywords: Climate mitigation policies, Turkish energy sector, Emission trading systems, Applied general equilibrium modeling, Paris Agreement, Disaggregated power sector, GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM, COMPLEMENTARITY-PROBLEMS, TURKEY
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: No


In the 2015 Paris Agreement, Turkey pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 21% by 2030 relative to business-as-usual (BAU). We expect that fulfilling this pledge will likely require a reduced reliance on fossil-based energy and additional investments in low-carbon energy sources. To fully assess these impacts, we develop a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Turkish economy that combines macroeconomic representation of non-electric sectors with a detailed power sector representation. We analyze several scenarios to assess the impact of an emission trading scheme: one including the planned nuclear development and a renewable subsidy scheme (BAU), and another with no nuclear technology allowed (NoN). Our assessment shows that in 2030, without policy, primary energy will be mainly oil, natural gas and coal. Under an emission trading scheme, however, coal-fired power generation vanishes by 2030 in both BAU and NoN due to the high cost of carbon. With nuclear (BAU), GHG emissions are 3.1% lower than NoN due to the resulting energy mix, allowing for a lower carbon price ($50/tCO2 in BAU compared to $70/tCO2 in NoN). Our results suggest that fulfillment of Turkey's pledge may be possible at a modest economic cost of about 0.8-1% by 2030.