Impregnation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) grafts with BMP-2 loaded functional nanoparticles for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

Karahaliloglu Z., ERCAN B., HAZER B.

JOURNAL OF MICROENCAPSULATION, vol.40, no.3, pp.197-215, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/02652048.2023.2188940
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.197-215
  • Keywords: Graft, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), nanoparticles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), linoleic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG), CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS, CELLULAR UPTAKE, SURFACE-CHARGE, ARTIFICIAL LIGAMENT, BONE, POLYSTYRENE, SCAFFOLDS, DELIVERY, METABOLISM, PROTEIN-2
  • Middle East Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Current artificial ligaments based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are associated with some disadvantages due to their hydrophobicity and low biocompatibility. In this study, we aimed to modify the surface of PET using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-terminated polystyrene (PS)-linoleic nanoparticles (PLinaS-g-PEG-NPs). We accomplished that BMP-2 in two different concentrations encapsulated in nanoparticles with an efficiency of 99.71 +/- 1.5 and 99.95 +/- 2.8%. While the dynamic contact angle of plain PET surface reduced from 116 degrees to 115 degrees after a measurement periods of 10 s, that of PLinaS-g-PEG-NPs modified PET from 80 degrees to 17.5 degrees within 0.35 s. According to in vitro BMP2 release study, BMP-2 was released 13.12 +/- 1.76% and 45.47 +/- 1.78% from 0.05 and 0.1BMP2-PLinaS-g-PEG-NPs modified PET at the end of 20 days, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that BMP2-PLinaS-g-PEG-NPs has a great potential to improve the artificial PET ligaments, and could be effectively applied for ACL reconstruction.